The Role of Sedation in Dentistry

Image result for The role of sedation in dentistryOral sedation has played a particularly key role in the treatment of patients with adverse emotions towards dentistry practices. The approach often entails putting patients in a near-sleep-like state, so that they remain almost unconscious in treatment, and later wake up with no negative memories of the undertaking.

Types of the above mentioned methodology include the minimal sedation, wherein a patient inhales a combination of nitrous oxide and oxygen to in turn bring in a relaxation feeling. The compound tends to wear off quickly. It serves as the only form of sedation wherein a patient can drive home after a dental procedure. For moderate sedation, the Halcion pill is utilized, being a member of the same drug family as Valium, and is consumed an hour before the operation. Deep sedation involves direct injection of an anesthesia into the veins, making an oral patient remain in a trance till the drug wears off or is reversed with medication.

In live (non-sedated) oral operations, a numbing agent is always applied to the site where the dentist is working on to in turn negate discomfort/pain.

Reference

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23174615

Improving Dental Hygiene Products Through Virtual Brushing

Image result for Improving dental hygiene products through virtual brushingThe design of toothpaste and toothbrushes is a time-consuming process involving the testing of various samples. A new type of application has nonetheless proved quite useful in addressing this concern; by incorporating salient parameters such as abrasive particle size, which can be modified with a single click to further enhance decision making in the above mentioned process.

Simulated tooth brushing

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics in Freiburg recently unveiled their methodology; meant to equip producers of dental hygiene items in determining the cleaning effectiveness of various features in a quick and economical manner. Unlike the real world experiments, these characteristics can be easily tweaked in simulation, whether it’s the size, shape, material or quantity of abrasive elements in toothpaste, or the elasticity of toothbrush bristles.

Risk of wear from abrasive particles

Abrasive particles serve as key components of toothpaste, because they mechanically get rid of plaque from the teeth. A good toothpaste however shouldn’t be excessively abrasive, since the continued friction over time can damage the enamel, which doesn’t regenerate.

Reference

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160302094517.htm

A Novel Way to Apply Drugs to Dental Plaque

Image result for A novel way to apply drugs to dental plaqueTherapeutic compounds aiming to negate dental plaque and tooth decay are often removed by saliva and swallowed even before they can make an impact. Nonetheless, researchers from the Rochester University have uncovered a new way to deliver antibacterial agents within the plaque, despite saliva presence.

To bind the agent, also referred to as farnesol, to targeted sites, the project team constructed spherical mass models, taking the form of a nanoparticle carriers. Their outer layer was made out of positively charge segments of polymers, while their inside harbored the drug constituting hydrophobic and pH-responsive polymers.

The positively charge outer layer was able to firmly attach to the teeth’s surface because of the enamel’s HA (hydroxyapatite) aggregates which are negatively charged. In the same methodology which sees opposite charged magnets attracting each other, so is the case for nanoparticles and HA. Not only did the particles stay in place, but they were also able to fasten around the polymeric matrix and dental plaque.

Reference

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150401161518.htm

 

Stem Cells a Potential Solution for Cartilage Repair

Many people suffer from jaw discomfort that arise from the gradual wearing down of cartilage- but current solutions only alleviate some of the systems, and do not directly repair the cartilage itself. Now, a recent study in Columbia University Medical Center in New York has revealed a promising solution for joint repair by using stem cell manipulation.

The researchers experimented on mice with TMJ (temporomandibular) degeneration, a breakdown of cartilage/bone in the lower jaw. Transplanting a single stem cell eventually led to the growth of new cartilage and bone, as even began to form a bone marrow niche. This, of course, is a well-known characteristic of stem cells- the ability to transform its typing and specialize into a myriad of body cell types.

The new alternative is not perfect. Common issues with stem cells include its potential rejection from the recipient’s immune system, as well as possibly introducing pathogens or inducing tumors. However, as more research is fueled into developments into the world of dental technology, more innovations are sure to come.

The Importance of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease in Dentistry

Image result for The Importance of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in DentistryData from the World Health Organization indicates that one in every persons in industrialized nations has either occasional or continuous upper gastrointestinal disorders. An example of such an ailing is the gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has one of its symptoms being dental erosion. Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) refers invasion of the esophagus by gastric compounds, and GERD is

viewed as a further complication of GER. Additional symptoms including random sour tastes in mouth, belching and heartburns. Clinicians have pointed out that eroding of teeth is normally caused by acid regurgitation from the stomach. The occurrence is an irreversible series of event comprising of mineral loss totally unrelated to microbial involvement.

Proponents in the oral health domain therefore recommend a multi-disciplinary approach to treatment of the above mentioned ailing, involving family physicians, dentists, gastroenterologists and orthodontists. Also, they advocate for minimal intervention in treatment via the use of adhesive restorations and biomimetic compounds.

Reference

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13102818.2006.10817357